Brain disorders encompass a wide variety of conditions that may affect attention, concentration, memory, executive function or planning, or mood stability. Examples include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, head injuries, memory impairment, psychosis, systemic or brain diseases, seizures, or personality changes. These disorders are felt to arise from inborn or acquired changes in brain function.
- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders are genetically predisposed and may be affected by nutritional factors or environmental exposure. These disorders can occur with or without hyperactivity.
- Head injuries arise from traumatic injuries to the brain and may occur from blunt force trauma or even shock waves, and are characterized by postconcussional physical and psychological symptoms, including changes in attention, focus, concentration, memory, personality, explosiveness, dizziness, coordination problems, and headaches. Cognitive and behavioral changes arising from brain diseases may also include many of these types of symptoms.
- Memory disorders can range from subtle to severe and may also be caused by degenerative processes, injuries, illnesses, medications, hormone imbalances, or through normal aging.
- Psychotic disorders may arise from brain injuries, mood disturbances, toxicities, imbalances, and genetic brain diseases such as schizophrenia. Some patients may develop personality changes and mood or thinking disorders as a result of certain types of seizures. Patients with traumatic life experiences may also develop nonepileptic seizures, which are felt to be the result of high levels of anxiety and difficulty coping with stress.
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